fat definition biology

Oleic acid has a double bond (thus being "unsaturated") with cis geometry about midway in the chain; it makes up 55–80% of olive oil. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid (with only single bonds) found in animal fats, and is the intended product in full hydrogenation. High levels of TFAs have been recorded in popular "fast food" meals. Triglycerides that are solid at room temperature Thus a fatty acid molecule with n simple bonds can be deformed in n-1 independent ways (counting also rotation of the terminal methyl group). In the general chemical nomenclature developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the recommended name of a fatty acid, derived from the name of the corresponding hydrocarbon, completely describes its structure, by specifying the number of carbons and the number and position of the double bonds. Figure 1: A fat molecule. [196][197][198][199][200][201][202], A 2007 study funded by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board[203] claimed that replacing natural palm oil by other interesterified or partial hydrogenated fats caused adverse health effects, such as higher LDL/ HDL ratio and plasma glucose levels. [2], The most important elements in the chemical makeup of fats are the fatty acids. [60], The effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease has been extensively studied. Fat Definition. Researchers are studying triglycerides, cholesterol and other fats to learn more about normal and abnormal biology. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/fat/. Biologydictionary.net, May 07, 2017. https://biologydictionary.net/fat/. [168], Some trans fatty acids occur in natural fats and traditionally processed foods. [28], The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia — abnormal blood lipid levels, including high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad" cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol). [ făt ] Any of a large number of oily compounds that are widely found in plant and animal tissues and serve mainly as a reserve source of energy. [167], Trans fats are processed by the liver differently than other fats. (The names refer to the fact that each double bond means two fewer hydrogen atoms in the chemical formula. In mammals, fat, or adipose tissue, is … Most unsaturated fatty acids that occur in nature have those bonds in the cis ("same side") configuration. In the phospholipids, one of the fatty acids is replaced by phosphoric acid or a monoester thereof. Fats are usually named after their source (like olive oil, cod liver oil, shea butter, tail fat) or have traditional names of their own (like butter, lard, ghee, and margarine). Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function. As we all know, our diet should be balanced, which means we must take food supplemented with all the vitamins in trace amounts. The shape of fat and fatty acid molecules is usually not well-defined. Larger text size Large text size Regular text size. [125] Up to 45% of the total fat in those foods containing man-made trans fats formed by partially hydrogenating plant fats may be trans fat. Assuming given that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) are generally healthier than saturated ones (SFAs), another question that has gained attention in recent decades is the risks and benefits of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, with a single double bond) versus polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, with two or more double bonds). In nutrition, biology, and chemistry, fat usually means any ester of fatty acids, or a mixture of such compounds; most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food. Antioxidants can protect unsaturated fat from lipid peroxidation. The single change of configuration in one double bond causes them to have different chemical and physical properties. [117], The hydrogenation process, invented and patented by Wilhelm Normann in 1902, made it possible to turn relatively cheap liquid fats such as whale or fish oil into more solid fats and to extend their shelf-life by preventing rancidification. [186] Like the NAS, the World Health Organization has tried to balance public health goals with a practical level of trans fat consumption, recommending in 2003 that trans fats be limited to less than 1% of overall energy intake.[114]. This side reaction accounts for most of the trans fatty acids consumed today, by far. There are two kinds of unsaturated fats: monounsaturated, which contain one double bond; and polyunsaturated, which … [109] The DHA obtained through the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids is positively associated with cognitive and behavioral performance. The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other substances the body needs. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture have investigated whether hydrogenation can be achieved without the side effect of trans fat production. For example, alpha-Linolenic acid is a "ω−3" or "n−3" acid, meaning that there is a double bond between the third and fourth carbons, counted from that end; that is, its structural formula ends with –CH=CH–CH2–CH3. Fat s provide a means of storing energy for most eukaryotes , as well as act as a food source. Dietary fats are also the carriers of some flavor and aroma ingredients and vitamins that are not water-soluble. This is because trans fat is naturally present in many animal foods in trace quantities, and thus its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances. Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[184] contains their findings and recommendations regarding consumption of trans fat (summary). [51][52], The WHO/FAO report also recommended replacing fats so as to reduce the content of myristic and palmitic acids, specifically. In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a macrobiomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents. Monounsaturated fats are found in animal flesh such as red meat, whole milk products, nuts, and high fat fruits such as olives and avocados. Lipids are organic compounds that contain the same elements as carbohydrates: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Content: Water-Soluble Vs Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Each double bond reduces the number of conformational degrees of freedom by one. Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. [115], Concerns about trans fatty acids in human diet were raised when they were found to be an unintentional byproduct of the partial hydrogenation of vegetable and fish oils. [110] Some studies have shown associations between higher intakes and/or blood levels of omega-3 PUFAs and a decreased risk of certain cancers, including breast and colorectal cancer, while other studies found no associations with cancer risk. carbohydrates are one of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. [48] But this is contrary to the suggestion of more recent studies, in which polyunsaturated fats are shown as protective against insulin resistance. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (. [57][58][59] Still, these discordant studies fueled debate over the merits of substituting polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats. [83] Different saturated fatty acids have differing effects on various lipid levels.[84]. Although CLA is known for its anticancer properties, researchers have also found that the cis-9, trans-11 form of CLA can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease and help fight inflammation. When applied to a suitable bend of oils and saturated fats, possibly followed by separation of unwanted solid or liquid triglycerides, this process can achieve results similar to those of partial hydrogenation without affecting the fatty acids themselves; in particular, without creating any new "trans fat". "Labeling & Nutrition – Guidance for Industry: Federal Register – 68 FR 41433 11 July 2003: Food Labeling: Trans Fatty Acids in Nutrition Labeling, Nutrient Content Claims, and Health Claims, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fat&oldid=992628086, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A meta-analysis published in 2003 found a, Another review found limited evidence for a positive relationship between consuming animal fat and incidence of, Other meta-analyses found evidence for increased risk of, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 08:10. Even within the United States there was variation, with fries in New York containing 30% more trans fat than those from Atlanta. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids as a source of energy for metabolism. Dietary fats are a blend of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in different proportions. [82] There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in CVD, although it seems, in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile, the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect. The most common fatty acids in human diet are unsaturated or mono-unsaturated. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer#Specific dietary fatty acidssignificant positive relationship, "Macronutrients: the Importance of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat", University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, "Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid", "The human proteome in adipose - The Human Protein Atlas", "Top food sources of saturated fat in the US", "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20", "Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease", "Key Recommendations: Components of Healthy Eating Patterns", United States Department of Health and Human Services, "Trends in Intake of Energy, Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Saturated Fat — United States, 1971–2000", "Dietary Guidelines for Indians - A Manual", National Health and Medical Research Council, "Eating and Activity Guidelines for New Zealand Adults", "Principles for national and regional guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the World Heart and Stroke Forum", "Mediterranean diet and health outcomes: a systematic meta-review", "Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis", "Research Review: Old data on dietary fats in context with current recommendations: Comments on Ramsden et al. 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